Hashing is used to learn binary-code representation for data with expectation of preserving the neighborhood structure in the original feature space. Due to its fast query speed and reduced storage cost, hashing has been widely used for efficient nearest neighbor search in a large variety of applications like text and image retrieval. Most existing hashing methods adopt Hamming distance to measure the similarity (neighborhood) between points in the hashcode space. However, one problem with Hamming distance is that it may destroy the neighborhood structure in the original feature space, which violates the essential goal of hashing. In this paper, Manhattan hashing (MH), which is based on Manhattan distance, is proposed to solve the problem of Hamming distance based hashing. The basic idea of MH is to encode each projected dimension with multiple bits of natural binary code (NBC), based on which the Manhattan distance between points in the hashcode space is calculated for nearest neighbor search. MH can effectively preserve the neighborhood structure in the data to achieve the goal of hashing. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to adopt Manhattan distance with NBC for hashing. Experiments on several largescale image data sets containing up to one million points show that our MH method can significantly outperform other state-of-the-art methods.